Poetry and the poet
Fetisova E.E. —
Neoacmeist Poetry of Yuri Levitansky and Entertaining Poets
// Litera. – 2016. – № 4.
– P. 32 - 51.
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Review: In article traditions of acmeism and neoacmeism, transformation and art "refraction" of a romantic esthetics of neoacmeism in works of the poet of "front generation" come to light (Yu. Levitansky), and also representatives of "variety poetry" (R. Rozhdestvensky, E. Yevtushenko). Also the problem of space and time are considered, Yu. Levitansky, R. Rozhdestvensky, E. Yevtushenko's poetry is compared with an existential continuum of "The divine comedy" of Dante, "a synchronous and reminiscential chronotope" thanks to which the genre polyphony projecting each concrete work in an infinite context of interpretations and prototexts, and "a monologue on a polyphonic basis" is created. Detailed classification and a typology of genre forms of the specified authors is carried out. The romantic esthetics of neoacmeism which has arisen during art searches of "men of the sixties", building poetic миромодель, the prospect of new opening causing subsequently on the ways of cultural science, philosophy, the domestic and world literature is for the first time analyzed. In article importance for the analysis of temporary category in poetry of "the Renaissance acmeism" of the hermeneutic concept of V. Diltey according to which time is considered as special type of category of inner world having objective value for comprehension of reality in experience is noted. The undertaken analysis convincingly shows that one of the major ontologic constants participating in forming of a picture of the poetic world, and also the art direction of neoacmeism is the specific concept of art time and space. Are established, in addition to subjective time and space, internal space of time and external space of time (V. Vernadsky's terms), and also cyclic, probabilistic causality and conditional meanings, "operators" of time and space. The independent status of methodology implies that it includes the ontology modeling the world. This factor is especially important for the analysis of the poetic text in an akspekta of its mythology, art time and space as creativity of acmeists a priori ontologichno and by means of the specific mythology containing in itself a set of archetypes of different eras and centuries creates authoring miromodeliruyushchy reality. At center of comparative approach – similarity of means of expression and authoring stylistics - from literary receptions, general phrases, quotes, hints up to a community of the authoring concept of a lyrical plot, art space and time - a synchronous and reminiscential chronotope – a similar image provided in A. Akhmadullina, E. Yevtushenko, R. Rozhdestvensky's poems, "The divine comedy" of Dante, lyrical cycles of A. Akhmatova, poetry of Ars. Tarkovsky and R. Rozhdestvensky. The comparative and typological method is added by elements of both structural, and receptive and hermeneutical approaches. The comparative analysis and a method of semiotics reconstruction of the poetic text serve as a key to understanding of semantics and inner patterns of a paradigm of neoacmeism. Novelty of operation is that works of low-probed poets of front generation are exposed to all-round interpretation, is considered in the light of operation of the mechanism of cultural memory as synthesis of form and content. The ciphered reminiscences in poetic texts are connected to authoring reception of polysemanticism, the "politsitatnost" having implicit character. Images archetypes it is associated along with several quotation sources – bible, folklore, different images of domestic and foreign literature thanks to what acquire the status of several potential "prototexts" and interpretations. From the formal point of view it promotes origin of genres on a joint of two and more genre "valences". The conclusion that the neoacmeism (Russian "Renaissance") contains in the structure which center is constituted by "semantic poetics", a certain uniting mental code of the Russian culture which unites external and formally absolutely various poets within a single literary trend is drawn. In this sense it is possible to speak not about akmeistichesky tradition in modern poetry, and about continuous development of "semantic poetics" of acmeism and the neoacmeism inheriting it in creativity of a number of modern poets, that is about formation of poetic practice of acmeism for all XX century, and without basic change not only esthetic, about and semiotics prerequisites which mainly and marks change of poetic systems. Thus, in modern literary criticism constructive dialogue of two art systems – acmeism and neoacmeism – is considered in several aspects: comparative (the analysis of typological communications, reminiscences, hints), gnoseological (similarity of outlooks of poetic systems), intertextual (so, A. Akhmatova's poetry serves as "prototext" of lyrics of Yu. Levitansky, Ars. Tarkovsky, E. Yevtushenko), ontologic (the unity of the mythology creating, in turn, determined миромодель - so "the Akhmatova myth" creates immanent to itself structure of individual author's mythology of neoacmeists), and, at last, at the level of "minitext" of poetics of titles, epigraphs, dedications. Philological and philosophical hermeneutics now in total created the field of an interpretative discourse of modern poetry.
Keywords: semantic poetics, symbol, archetype, romantic aesthetics, Divine Comedy, synchronous reminiscential chronotope, poetry, frontline generation, neoacmeism, acmeism
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