Noyanzina O.E., Maksimova S.G., Omel'chenko D.A., Goncharova N.P. —
Individual risk factors of the social exclusion of senior citizens in modern Russia: on the example of three Siberian regions
// SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. – 2017. – ¹ 2.
– P. 1 - 17.
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Review: The subject of this article is the examination of risk factors of social exclusion of the older population in the Russian Federation based on the integral assessment of indexes of the components of social exclusion. The author suggest the model for assessing the factors of social exclusion of the elderly that is developed with consideration of the fact that social exclusion is a multidimensional phenomenon, which reflects the economic structural, and sociocultural aspects. The work puts forward and tests the specific indicators of assessment of the social exclusion of the elders that is based on estimation of the socio-economic (material) deprivation, deprivation of social rights (access to social institutions and services), deprivation of safety (safe environment), deprivation of social inclusion, cultural (normative) disintegration, and social autism. The authors highlight a number of the micro-level risk factors of exclusion, which a partially unmanageable, and partially manageable. The unmanageable (independent) risk factors of social exclusion imply: age (above 55 for women, and above 60 for men); solitary living; status (working/non-working pensioner); scale of pension; marital status; religion; ability to live independently; years of pensionable service; type of settlement (town/rural area). The manageable (dependent) risk factors imply: mobility; state of health; absence of privately-owned dwelling; low level of education; coping strategies; estimation of financial situation; lack of adaptation retirement. The assessment of social exclusion of the senior citizens in three regions of the Russian Federation (Altai Krai, Zabaykalsky Krai, and Kemerovo Oblast) was conducted using the results of sociological survey of 2016, with participation of 779 respondents in the age of 55 (female) and 60 (male). The main conclusion consists in the following statements: 1) being socially excluded does not imply experiencing deprivation in all aspects of exclusion, but rather its separate spheres; 2) disablement, restrictions in health and mobility definitely increase the risk of social exclusion; 3) each of the examined risk factors, by increasing the share of some components of social exclusion, inevitably decrease the share of others components of exclusion.
Keywords: deprivation, index of social exclusion, risk factors, risk of social exclusion , social exclusion, exclusion, senior citizens, assessment, region, index
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