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The research object is legal relations in the area of ensuring long-term sustainability of space activities. The research subject is the range of international and domestic political and legal instruments regulating the issues of long-term sustainability of space activities.Based on the analysis, the author concludes that the adoption of universal international principles of long-term sustainability of space activities is the key to safety, stability and progressive development of world space activities, which is the ultimate goal of the international space community. The author shows that in different jurisdictions (Russia, the USA, European Union) long-term sustainability of space activities is not understood uniformly, and that the respective domestic political and legal conditions for its provision vary significantly. The author further concludes that there is a necessity to harmonize the existing and the future national legal regimes to ensure safety and long-term sustainability of space activities on the basis of the uniform international principles, which are being developed by the United Nations Organization.To achieve the research tasks, the author applies the dialectical, logical, system and structural, functional, comparative-legal and other research methods. In the research process, the comprehensive approach is used to analyze and elaborate on the research problems.
The object of this research is the institution of self-regulatory organizations in modern Russia as an instrument of managing political risks in the process of delegation of authority by the government; while the subject is the blockchain technology and the possibilities of its implementation in the process of functioning of the various institutions of modern society, particularly within the framework of operation of self-regulatory organizations. The author meticulously examines in which aspects in functioning of the self-regulatory organizations the blockchain technologies can increase their efficiency as an instrument of managing political risks in delegating authority by the government. A conclusion is made that application of the blockchain technology in terms of operation of the self-regulatory organizations can raise confidence of the citizens in the self-regulatory institution, as well as offset the political risks in delegation of authority to the self-regulatory organizations by the government. Thus, it is proven the efficiency of operation of the self-regulatory organizations as in instrument of managing political risks in delegation of authority significantly increases.
The research subject is the analysis of the specificity of NASA’s interrelation with small and medium businesses in the sphere of scientific research and development. The research is based on the results of NASA’s public-private partnership programs in the sphere of space activities, primarily the long-term Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR). Special attention is given to the methods used for the evaluation of the progress of commercialization of the results of small businesses’ R&D for the aerospace agency. To solve the research tasks, the author uses general scientific research methods – formal-logical, comparative, transition from concrete to abstract, analysis, synthesis and others. Based on the results of the regular effectiveness audit of the SBIR program, conducted by national academies of sciences of the USA, the author concludes that the development of NASA’s management systems, including the level of its adaptability, ability to transform, and transparency, is a necessary condition, but it is not enough for the improvement of the research intensity of the related economic sector. The author concludes that within NASA’s area of responsibility, including its key state partners, general contractors, the academic community and other participants of scientific and innovation activities, the models of evaluation of the level of commercialization in terms of common economic activities (for example, the volume of sales or gross proceeds) have limited applicability. The main criteria are the broadening of the total volume of technological knowledge in space and missile sector, and the potential commercial value of R&D results, even if they haven’t entered the market yet. Another criterion is the development level of the information infrastructure of the sector, which is also the key instrument of functioning of the modern system of space activities.
This article analyzes the interpretation of historical cognition in semiotics of the culture of Y. M. Lotman. Special attention is given to the semiotic interpretation of the notions of “historical fact” and “historical event”. The author determines the place of Lotman’s semiotics in the context of classical (positivistic) and nonclassical (linguistically and hermeneutically oriented) philosophy of history and theory of historical writing, as well as clarifies the link between the interpretation of cultural communication in Lotman’s concept and semiotic aspect of historical cognition. The research reveals the similarities and differences of Lotman’s semiotics of history with the modern post-culturalist philosophy of history formulated in the works of H. White, F. Ankersmit, and C. Köllner. During the course of this study, the author applied the comparative method, problem-thematic way of analysis and presentation of material. It is demonstrated that the suggested by Lotman interpretation of the key notions of the historical writing theory (historical fact, historical process, historical reality) overcomes the extremes of objectivism and relativism in understanding of the historical past. The process of historical cognition is described in Lotman’s works in accordance with the model of cultural communication, in other words, as a dialogue between history and modernity that suggests the existence of common language between the culture of the past, which comprises the object of historical interest, and the culture of the present, the part and bearer of which is a historian.
The subject of this article is the application of some techniques of high-precision trajectory analysis for the improvement of safety of takeoff and landing of aircraft. This issue critically important for airports with the high density air traffic, where the air traffic service (ATS) is responsible for the safety of takeoffs and landings. Nowadays the Instrument Landing System (ILS) is the primary system for these purposes, but all categories of the ILS equipment are sensitive to interferences/obstructions and depend on meteorological conditions. The use of the Satellite Navigation System (SNS) smooths over the deficiencies of the ILS, but without additional components, it does not ensure accuracy comparable at least with the ILS CAT I.The study aims at finding the approaches for obtaining accurate, reliable and credible navigation data directly on board of the aircraft, regardless of weather conditions. The proposed approach is based on the mathematical model of the system of trajectory measurements, defining the flight parameters of an aircraft in a non-query mode.In order to achieve the research goals, the author uses the methods of linear algebra, mathematical modeling of stochastic processes, and computer methods of measurement data processing.The mathematical model and the results of the simulation demonstrate the possibility of high-precision measurement, on board of a plane in a non-query mode, of six current navigation parameters: distance; radial velocity; azimuth; elevation and the rate of change of azimuth and elevation. The proposed method allows increasing the safety of takeoff and landing of an aircraft in the most adverse weather conditions (Ñategory IIIñ ICAO).
The subject of this research is the methods of foreign policy legitimation of political power in the post-Soviet de facto states. The object of this research is the foreign policy activity of the aforementioned political-territorial entities. Special attention is given to the description and analysis of the political (opening of embassies and representative establishments; creation of alternative international organizations), economic (establishment of economic ties with other countries; participation on international forums and exhibitions), as well as cultural (promotion of brand of the de facto state using the instruments of cultural diplomacy) instruments of the foreign policy legitimation. The topic at hand is insufficiently studied and of practical relevance because the political processes in the de facto states and their further institutionalization strongly affect the relations between countries within the region. The author comes to a conclusion that the presence or absence of a vast foreign diaspora produce substantial impact upon the character and scale of the foreign policy legitimation of political power in the de facto states.
Many places on Earth have been used as analogs of space vehicles, with the goal of understanding the pressures and stresses of a long-duration spaceflight such as a round-trip voyage to Mars. One of these is the situation common to many of the aged, especially those who live in group housing: planned communities, assisted living centers, or nursing homes. This paper looks at the lessons that space psychology and geriatric psychology can teach each other. Traditionally, both the literature on aging and that on spaceflight have focused on the problems that their population of interest experiences, and on what can be done to alleviate the negative effects of those problems – or, more familiarly, on countermeasures. The problems are due to or mediated by, stress, which is a common factor in both literatures.There are many common factors related to successful aging and successful spaceflight. Increased cross-flow of ideas between the two research communities would be fruitful.
The research subject is the peculiarities of government control in the labour sphere in the companies of the residents of the free port of Vladivostok. The specificity of the legal regime of the free port of Vladivostok, characterized by decreasing the redundant control of the government bodies and the possibility of employing migrants without quotas and limitations, defines the risk of employer’s abuses in the labour sphere. The purpose of the research is to define contradictions in the international regulation of the activities of labour inspections and the legislation on the free port of Vladivostok, and to develop their solutions. To acquire the most reliable scientific results, the author uses general scientific methods (system-structural, formal-logical and hermeneutical) and specific legal methods (comparative-legal and formal-legal). These methods are used as a complex. The author concludes that the legislation about the free port of Vladivostok doesn’t conform to international obligations of the Russian Federation in the sphere of control over labour inspections. The revealed contradictions can hamper the performance of its functions by a labour inspection in the companies of the residents of the free port of Vladivostok. The author offers two ways two solve this problem. In the first case it is necessary to make changes in the corresponding subordinate acts. Otherwise, law enforcing subjects should ignore the provisions of the legislation on the free port of Vladivostok contradicting the Labour Inspection Convention.
The research subject is the physical (space) vacuum as a matter. In modern science there is no common understanding of the nature of the physical vacuum. The Quantum Field Theory knows some vacuum effects that characterize vacuum as a matter. The Condensed Matter Physics considers vacuum as a quantum liquid that is characterized by superfluidity. The Celestial Mechanics, Cosmology, and Space Exploration consider vacuum as empty space. The objectives of this study are 1) compilation and systematization of data on the structure, properties and the vacuum effects observed in the microcosm and the Space, and conceptual approaches to their interpretation; 2) analysis of emerging contradictions and the search for theoretical models consistently explaining the existing data on the physical vacuum; 3) substantiation of the method of validation of the presented solution. The key prerequisites for this study are the ideas about gravitational interactions symmetry as a physical reality, about the unity of the vacuum theory both in microphysics and cosmophysics. To solve the research tasks, the author uses general scientific methods and research techniques (generalization, analysis, synthesis), the methods of formal logic, the hypothetico-deductive method, and modeling. The author designs a theoretical model, which consistently explains the combination of qualities of physical vacuum as empty space and condensed elastic medium. Based on the proposed model, the author studies the impact of vacuum on the movement of celestial bodies and explains the range of vacuum effects in microcosm and the space, including the emergence of inertia in vacuum. The author offers the experiment scheme, based on the use of artificial Earth satellites, for defining the impact of vacuum on the movement of celestial bodies.
The subject of this research is the content and direction of the modern cultural processes that lead to the qualitative changes of local cultures, as well as the global cultural space as a whole. The goal of this work consists in determination of trends and prospects of the modern cultural dynamics. The authors examine the essence and content of the processes of globalization and unification of cultural space, virtualization and simulation of sociocultural reality, formation of quasi-society on the basis of Internet communication, features and peculiarities of functionality of the new “galactic of the social-network communication”. Methodology of the study includes the general development trends of the modern culture; its near and future prospect are analyzes from the perspective of the philosophy of life, symbolic interactionism and system-structural approach. A number of conclusions was made during the course of this work: with regards to modernity, can be acknowledged the homogenization of cultural landscape, emergence of the generalized cultural field as a result of globalization – a planetary trend of cultural dynamics. A positive impact of these processes can be observed from the perspective of the philosophy of life of Georg Simmel, according to which the flow of life sweeps away the created by it, but having become confined cultural forms, and leans towards the new, previously unknown. The signs of formation of that new detects another important and noticeable direction in transformation of the modern culture – virtualization and concurrent simulation of the entire sociocultural reality that grasp the economy, politics, social sphere, cultural and leisure, and mass communication. Virtual reality gradually obtains the status of primacy in relation to reality; and the manipulations with the symbols of things substitute the actions with the things themselves. The third trend in cultural dynamics that has powerfully asserted itself is the formation and rapid development of the “galactic of the social-network communication” that generates the quasi-society.