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Mikhailenko, Yu. P. Pont de Nemours: Spread of Physiocratic Ideas in the Context of Struggle of European States for Domination

Published in journal "Philosophy and Culture", 2011-7 in rubric "History of ideas and teachings", pages 155-182.

Resume: The name of Pont de Nemours associates with the spread of physiocratic ideas in Europe. The first major success was reached when the French government made a step from mercantile politics defending interests of manufacturers, to stimulation of national agriculture farming. However, very soon this measure was canceled. Representatives of the physiocratic teaching found their followers in Switzerland, Sweden and a number of other countries. Attempts to get Ekaterina the Great interested was a failure. Russia was strengthening its positions in the world as a result of military success of Orlov, Suvorov, Rumyantsev. The peasant servage only developed. The most active and bold peasants ran away to the South and East an djoined Kazakhs there. The Tsar government had enough power to struggle with both foreign enemies and to keep the peasants serve. The dispute between followers of physiocratic teaching whether a free game of market laws or this or another form of the state regulation was more effective for national economy was started again in Russia during the rule of Eltsin. Eltsin Ĺshocking therapyĺ led to heavy losses in economy and a catastrophic fall of living standards. Eltsinĺs successor, Putin, renewed the forms of state control which were appropriate for the Russian economy. Lockĺs successor, Pont de Nemours established theoretical grounds for the bourgeois idea of sovereignty and opposed it to the feudal conception of the divine origin of a King.

Keywords: philosophy, Pont de Nemours, Enlightenment, servage, despotism, market, competition, Munnich, Orlov, Suvorov.

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