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Mikhaylenko, Yu. P. Turgot: Highest Peak of Activity of Philosophers and Economics in Pre-Revolution France During the 18th Century. Part 1

Published in journal "Philosophy and Culture", 2012-8 in rubric "History of ideas and teachings", pages 113-128.

Resume: Turgot has ended the social and economic program of bourgeois innovations developing under conditions overripen feudalism of bourgeois concepts. Innovators acted within the framework of French Enlightenment. They prepared ideological revolution back in 1789. Turgot raised the economic theory up to the highest level, anticipating Adam Smith in some teachings for instance, in his approach to origins of labor theory of price, relationship and turnover of national capitals in agriculture, trade, and et. As the minister of finances, Turgot implemented market measures of freedom of entrepreneurship activity overcoming opposition of the old philosophy adepts. His polemics with Louis the King about the administrative reform outlined distribution of forces during pre-revolutionary period. However, after Turgot lost his position, reactionists tried to eliminate all his work and reform. But then revolutionists of the 1789 adopted Turgots ideas and put them into life. Marx described Turgot as a great person both as an administrative figure and founder of social and economic theory. Even in modern Russia Turgot achievements help us to understand complicated processes of market economics.

Keywords: philosophy, Louis the 16th, capital, farmer, merchant, gobmeen man, banker, Luther, Dante, labor.

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