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Museum souvenir: the evolution of museum
Abstract.The object of this research is the modern culture in globalized world. The subjects is the museum souvenir as an example for the analysis of processes that take place in museum industry, which in turn, is a part of the institutional culture. The goal of this work consists in determination of the key reasons that lead to the changes in museum industry. The set goal is realized through the analysis of the phenomenon of museum souvenir in museum practice. The authors examine the causes of evolution of the modern museum, as well as analyze the transformations in museum practice, and their correlation with the phenomenon of museum souvenir. The conclusion is made that in the second half of the XX century, human civilization entered the urban era. The development of industrial cities has changed the structure of social relations; an individual with the desire for maximal comfort has come to the fore. Achievement of comfort implies the consumption of goods and services, as well as longing and ability to own. A man of consumer society wants to have everything that surrounds him, including culture. Culture transforms into a form of entertainment, becomes popular, understandable, and available. The latter is supported by the development of tourism industry. A tourist, getting in touch with diverse culture around the world, expects it to be comprehensible and entertaining. For “interpreting” the local culture onto the language of mass consumption, have been created the “museums for tourists”, where a person can feel comfortable. The new museums do not require from the visitors the efforts for cognizing the “historical memory of culture”, but rather present the “images” of culture that fit in the global and generally accepted categories. Museum turns into a “souvenir shop”, recreation center, and thus, integrates into the system of global marker. In the process of such integration, special place belongs to a museum souvenir, which allows the museum succeeding as a trademark, adjusting the cultural code to public, and making profit. Such processes testify to the changes in basic function of a museum: it no longer need to accumulate the objects of historical memory, but rather create the “images” of culture.
Keywords: New museum, Urbanization, Mass culture, Consumer society, Modern museum, Globalization, Museum souvenir, Glocalization, Souvenir, Museum
Article was received:25-01-2016
This article written in Russian. You can find full text of article in Russian here .