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To the question about the role of individual household in the incomes of collective farmers of Sverdlovsk Region during the period of 1940’s – 1950’s (according to the data of examination of the household budget)
Abstract.The scientific novelty of this research consists in examination of the incomes of collective farmers of Sverdlovsk Region over the period of 1941-1958 based on the materials of budget inspection. The article provides the data on gross agricultural outputs within the individual households in value terms, dynamics, and structure of the annual average working hours of a family of collective farers, and time expenditure when working in the individual household. The author characterizes the structure of sowing in household plots, indicates the dynamics of agricultural production in the households of collective farmers, as well as defines the role of individual household in income in kind and cash of a peasant family. Methodology of the work suggests structuring the dynamic rows of the key indexes in functionality of peasant household on the basis of calculations of the annual average household budgets in accordance with the five-year circuit. This allowed grading the significant inclination of indexes of the peasant households in different timeframes, caused by the changes in the state agrarian policy alongside the natural climatic factors, as well as determining the trends of their development. The analysis of budget inspections testifies to the fact that throughout the indicated period, individual household in Sverdlovsk Region was the main source of income in kind and cash in a peasant family. Public economy satisfied the needs of the collective farmers only in cereal and fodder grain. Major portion of potato, vegetables, meat, dairy, and eggs came from the household plots. At the same time, most of the working time among the labor force accrued for the public economy. In the second part of 1950’s, due to the changes in Soviet agrarian policy, took place a noticeable growth in the incomes of collective farmers from the work in collective farms alongside the machinery and tractor stations; this resulted in decrease of the role of individual household in the village.
Keywords: livestock, grains, crops, agriculture, gross output, budgets, farmers, Great Patriotic War, cows, working time
Article was received:12-08-2017
This article written in Russian. You can find full text of article in Russian here .