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At the Onset of Teenage Years: Reform of Secondary Education in Russia in 1864
Abstract.The subject of the research is the leading ideas of the secondary education reform that took place in Russia in 1864 when the origins and peculiar features of teenage years were first mentioned. The present research is based on the assumption that the term 'adolescence' was first brought up by that reform. Historical and pedagogical analysis carried out by the author casts light on the reasons of difficult and often deviant behavior of teenagers and emphasizes the insufficience of one-sided pedagogical influence. The researcher analyzes such aspects of the topic as the contents of the Statutes of Gymnasiums and Progymnasiums, and arguments of participants in pedagogical discussions. The author pays special attention to the definition and time frame of a new age period. The main research methods include study and analysis of legal acts and regulations in the sphere of education, reviews, research articles in pedagogics devoted to the reform of 1864, and historical and pedagogical researches of the childhood. The novelty of the research is caused by the fact that the development of the adolescence concept is viewed in terms of the reform of 1864. The Statutes of Gymnasiums and Progymnasiums created the system of massive (accessible) secondary education that would mean an extended period of education, and segregation of students depending on their chronological age. Students faced new conditions of life outside their families, established views of the world and themselves demolished, and that formed the basis of the teenage age. At the same time, declared education common to all mankind was replaced with the formal approach. As a result, the teenage age was primarily seen as a negative phenomeon and permanent teenage crisis.
Keywords: issues of life, education common to all mankind, upbringing of the, adolescence, Statutes of gymnasiums, reform of secondary education, classicism, realism, formal approach, permanent teenage crisis
Article was received:08-11-2017
This article written in Russian. You can find full text of article in Russian here .