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The Commemoration of the Deceased from Various Kinds of Deaths (Based on the Materials of Ancient Synodic-Memorials)
Abstract.The article presents an analysis of the texts of Synodic-memorials. The author examined in detail the composition of the synodic preface and those parts of the text that contain common memory. The article places its focus on the insertion of a list of deaths, considering the oldest surviving lists. The correlation of the parts of the texts of these monuments allows us to talk about the formative stages of the tradition of compiling the Synodic-memorial form and about the practice of inserting into it textual inscriptions that indicate the particularities of the local practice of commemorating in the context of a single tradition. The study of this topic implies the study of the attitude in Old Russian society towards the deceases from an unnatural death as a complex socio-cultural phenomenon. In this article, the method of comparative analysis is applied to the research: to determine the origins of the formation and further development of the features of the memorial practice in Russian spiritual culture, from the adoption of Christianity to the beginning of the 16th century. As a result of the author's study of the Lyubezki Synodic and the Novgorod I chronicles, which mention those deceased from sudden death, the author confirmed the scientific viewpoint that there was a general commemoration starting from at least 13th century. The examination of the content of synodic prefaces' edits has allowed the author to agree with the viewpoint that the first edition of the so-called Trekhclovniy preface was composed earlier than the middle of the 15th century. The most ancient Synodics, containing lists of deaths, are currently those of Pavlo-Obnorsky Monastery and St. Nilus of Sora, compiled in 1479 and 1492 respectively. The beginning of the unfolding of the very practice of commemorating the deceased who died suddenly should be attributed to the 1220s. These monuments attest significant changes in the practice of composing texts with the commemoration of those who died suddenly, and also examples of a gradual elaboration of the synodic preface form.
Keywords: enumeration deaths, wrong death, three-word preface, synodik preface, common memory, Synodic, commemoration practice, Russian spiritual culture, funeral tradition, vain death
Article was received:10-09-2018
This article written in Russian. You can find full text of article in Russian here .