Kolpakov M.Y., Mikheev D.V. —
The Geographical Views of English and French Authors on the Land of Pskov as Part of the Muscovite Tsardom
// History magazine - researches.
– 2019. – № 1.
– P. 12 - 34.
DOI: 10.7256/2454-0609.2019.1.28602 URL: https://en. nbpublish.com/library_read_article.php?id=28602
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The article presents an analysis of the geographical ideas concerning Pskov and the Pskov land as part of the Tsardom of Muscovy, which developed in England and France in the 16th - 17th centuries. The authors pay special attention to the written testimonies of English and French intellectuals, diplomats, traders and travelers, who wrote their opinions on the natural and geographical features of the Pskov borderland. A separate group of sources is formed by maps of English and French origin, reflecting the level of knowledge of the inhabitants of Western Europe in the early Modern Era about the borders and geographical features of the western borders of the Russian state. The methodological basis of this study is the historical-genetic and historical-comparative methods that allow to trace the development of the English and French authors' ideas concerning the natural and geographical features of the Pskov land in the 16th - 17th centuries and to identify the sources of recurring opinions on the region that were fixed in the mind of Western Europeans. The initial testimonies on the Pskov land, both in written sources and on maps, contain significant inaccuracies in their descriptions, which are explained by the authors' poor acquaintance with the territory of the Russian state. They received information from other foreign sources, either third-hand from residents of Muscovy or from merchants and diplomats who visited the country. By the 17th century the volume of accumulated information made for more and more accurate maps of the region. The descriptions of the region's geographical features, compiled by people who directly visited Pskov, were often short. The travelers were above all interested in the natural conditions and convenience of the border location of the city itself.
maps, geography, testimonies of contemporaries, Early Modern Period, England, France, Tsardom of Muscovy, Pskov land, Guillaume Le Testu, Anthony Jenkinson
La Scandinavie ou sont les estats de Suede Norwegue et Danemarck / A. Peyrounin sculp. // Cartes generales de toutes les parties du monde, ou les empires, monarchies, republiques, estats, peuples, &c. de l'Asie, de l'Afrique, de l'Europe, & de l'Americque, tant anciens que nouveaux, sont exactement remarqués, & distingués suivant leur estendue. Par le Sieur Sanson d'Abbeville, Geographe ordinaire du Roy. Paris: Pierre Mariette, 1658. URL: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b52510038g/f95.highres (data obrashcheniya: 12.12.2018).
Estats de la couronne de Pologne ou sont les royaume de Pologne, duchés et provinces de Prusse, Cuiavie, Mazovie, Russie noire & c., duchés de Lithuanie, Volhynie, Podolie & c., de l'Ukranie & c. / par N. Sanson; Iohannes Somer Pruthenus sculp. Paris: Pierre Mariette, 1663. URL: https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8459088k/f1.highres (data obrashcheniya: 12.12.2018).
La Livonie duché divisée en ses princip. parties Esten & Letten & c. / par le Sr. San